Monday, January 6, 2020

Personal Factors That Affect An Individual s Cognitions...

Personal factors, such as age, gender, traits, and attitudes can impact an individual’s cognitions and influence the type of crime they commit. In accordance to the Penal Reform Trust Bromley Briefings (2016), out of 3,861 women in prison in England and Wales in June 2016, eighty-five per cent are imprisoned due to a non-violent offence. Compared to women, men are more likely to be in prison because of serious violent offences, particularly violence against the person (Allen Dempsey, 2016). This is a possible indication that women and men have a different thinking process due to different social structures. Gender In the past, female violence was socially recognised and celebrated (King, 2013). Famous examples include Joan of Arc, the Amazon fighters, and Boudicca (King, 2013). However, in the current day children are exposed to media and social norms depicting what is expected of each sex (Hoeksema, 1990). It is expected that girls should be ladylike and behave non-violently, while it is more acceptable for boys to misbehave (Hoeksema, 1990). Lawrence Kohlberg (1966) was one of the first supporters for the cognitive theory on sex-typed behaviours and personality traits (Hoeksema, 1990). Kohlberg argued that children construct a cognitive representation of the world, also known as schemas, which then guides their behaviour (Hoeksema, 1990). All children develop a gender schema of how their sex is supposed to behave (Hoeksema, 1990). Perhaps the reason why women are moreShow MoreRelatedFemale Representation For Female Guilty Parties1701 Words   |  7 Pageslike crime and prostitution; the law frequently treats the prostitution exercises of guys and females in an unexpected way. and it has vacillated for still different classifications, for example, exasperated strike and drug law infringement (see Steffens Meier, 1993, for an audit of patterns and clarifications). 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